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初中英语知识点总结,中考英语怎么复习?

发布时间:2019-03-04 15:52:11 来源:互联网 作者:东方教育

  离中考就剩100来天,中考英语复习该抓紧了,小编老师今天为同学们整理了初中英语知识点总结供大家复习,希望大家在考前认真复习,逐条梳理知识网络,查漏补缺,确保熟记于心。

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  一.英语语法重点与难点

  1、 as…as…结构:你和汤姆是一样好的孩子。

  You’re a boy as good as Tom.=You’re as good a boy as Tom.

  2、 (1)too…to与 so…that sb. can’t…的句型转换:前者为简单句,主语只有一个,而后者为复合句,主语有两个,试比较:

  The man was too angry to be able to speak.

  The man was so angry that he wasn’t able to speak.

  (2) too…to…与 not enough to句型的转换:

  He is too young to get married.=He is not old enough to get married.

  The book is too difficult for me to read.=

  The book is not easy enough for me to read.

  3、 形容词原级表示比较级含义:

  约翰不象迈克那么苯。

  John is not so stupid as Mike.

  John is less stupid than Mike.

  John is cleverer than Mike.

  4、 用比较级表示最高级:约翰是班里最高的男生。

  John is taller than any other boy in the class.

  John is the tallest boy in the class.

  5、 the more...the more...,表示“越……越……”:

  The more books you read, the wider your knowledge is.

  The more food you eat, the fatter you are.

  6、 more and more...,表示“越来……越……”:

  More and more students realized the importance of a foreign language.

  Our country is getting stronger and stronger.

  二.中考考点—词组

  1. after,in这两个介词都可以表示“……(时间)以后”的意思

  after以过去为起点,表示过去一段时间之后,常用于过去时态的句子中?

  如:She went after three days. 她是三天以后走的

  in 以现在为起点,表将来一段时间以后,常用于将来时态的句子中

  如:She will go in three days. 她三天以后要走

  2. how long, how often, how soon

  how long指多长时间,主要用来对一段时间(如three days, four weeks 等)提问?如:How long ago was it? 这是多久前的事了?

  how often指每隔多久,主要用来对频率副词或状语(如once a week等)提问?如:—How often does he come here? —Once a month. 他(每隔)多久来一次?每月一次。

  how soon指再过多久,主要用来对表示将来的一段时间(in an hour, in two weeks 等)提问?如:How soon can you come? 你多快能赶来?

  3. few, a few, little, a little, several, some

  few和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“几乎没有”;而a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一点儿”

  few和a few修饰可数名词;little 和a little修饰不可数名

  several用于修饰可数名词,语意比a few和some更肯定,含有“好几个”的意思

  some可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词,从数量上说,它有时相当于a few或a little,有时指更多一些的数量

  4. the other, another

  the other 指两个人或事物中的“另一个”,表示特指?如:We stood on one side of the road and they stood on the other. 我们站在街这边,他们站在那边

  another着重于不定数目中的“另外一个”,表示泛指,所以常用来指至少三个中的一个?如:She has taken another of my books. 她已经拿了我的另外一本书

  5. spend, take, cost, pay

  spend的宾语通常是时间?金钱?在主动语态中,句子的主语必须是人,而且后面不能用动词不定式做它的宾语?如:She spent the whole evening in reading. 她把整个晚上用来读书

  take常常用来指“花费”时间,句子的主语通常是表示事物的词语?如:How long will this job take you?你做这项工作要花多长时间?

  cost 指花费时间?金钱或力气等,只能用表示事物的词做主语,并且不能用于被动语态?如:How much does the jacket cost?这件夹克多少钱?

  pay 主要指主语(某人)买某物(或为某事)付多少钱(给某人)?如:I pay for my rooms by month. 我按月支付租金

  6. among, between

  between 的意思是“在……中间,在……之间”,一般指在两者之间?如:There is a table between two windows. 在两扇窗户之间有一张桌子。between 有时也表示在多于两个以上的事物之间,但那是指在每二者之间。如:the relationship between different provinces and municiplities 省市和省市之间的关系(这里是指每两个省市之间的相互关系?)

  7. beat, win

  这两个词都有“获胜,打败”的意思,但其后宾语不同?beat是“打败,优于”的意思,后面接人或队?如:We beat them. 我们打败了他们。

  win指“赢,获胜”,后面接比赛?名次?如:We won the match/game/race/the first place. 我们赢了这场比赛(获得了第一名)。

  8. agree with, agree on, agree to

  agree on表示“就……取得一致意见”?如:We all agree on (making) an early start. 我们一致同意及早出发?

  agree with表示“与……意见一致”,后面既可以跟表示人的名词或人称代词,也可以跟表示意见。看法的名词或what引导的从句?。如:I agree with you without reservation.我毫无保留地同意你的意见。We agree with what you said just now.我们同意你刚才所说的意见。

  agree to后面不能接人,只能接“提议,计划,方案”等词句?如:I agree to the terms proposed. 我同意拟议的条件。

  9. bring, take, carry,fetch

  这四个词都是动词,都含有“带”或“拿”的意思,但使用的场合各不相同。

  bring作“带来,拿来”解?如:Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work. 下次不要忘了把一份你的作品带给我。

  take是bring的对语,作“带去,拿去”解?如:Take the box away, please. 请把盒子拿走。

  carry表示“运载,携带”之意,运送的方式很多,可以用车、船,也可以用手甚至用头。如:This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers. 这辆巴士准载一百人。

  fetch则表示“去拿来”的意思。如:Please fetch me the documents in that room. 请到那间房间去把文件拿来给我。

  10. each, every

  两词都是“每个”的意思,但着重点不同。each着重个别的情况,every着重全体,有“所有的”的意思。如:She knows each student of the class.她认识这个班里的每一个学生。She knows every student of the class.她认识这个班所有的学生。

  11. no one, none

  no one指“没有人(只能指人,不能用来指物)”,意思与nobody相同,作主语时不必跟of连用,如:No one believes him since he is not honest. 没有人相信他,因为他不诚实。No one else but I went. 除我以外,谁也没去。

  none指“一个也没有(既可指人,也可指物)”,作主语时代替不可数名词,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词,谓语动词用单、复数都可以。但在“主+系+表”结构中,如果表语为复数,则系动词要用复数形式。如:None of us are(is) afraid of difficulties. 我们谁也不怕困难。

  12. go on doing, go on to do, go on with

  这三个动词短语都有“继续做某事”的意思,其区别如下:go on doing表示“继续做,一直在做某事(中间无间断)”;go on to do表示“接着做某事”,即某事已做完,接着做另一件事;go on with也表示“继续做某事”,其含义是某一动作一度中止后,又继续下去。

  13. too much, much too

  二者都有“太,非常”之意,much too为副词词组,修饰形容词?副词,不可修饰动词。如:It’s much too cold.天气实在是太冷了。

  too much作“太多”讲,有以下三种用法?

  (1)作名词词组 如:You have given us too much. 你给我们的太多了。

  (2)作形容词词组修饰不可数名词 如:Don’t drink too

  much wine. 不要饮太多的酒

  (3)作副词词组修饰不及物动词 如:She talks too much. 她说话太多

  14. happen, take place与occur

  happen有“偶然”的意思,多用于客观事物?情况的发生?。如:Whatever has happened to your arm? It’s all swollen. 你的手臂怎么了?肿得好历害!

  occur 指有计划地使某些事“发生”,有时强调“呈现”于人的知觉中。如:Did it occur to you to phone them about it?你难道没想到就这事给他们打个电话?

  事件作主语时,happen和occur可以通用?如:The accident happened/occurred yesterday. 事故是昨天发生的。

  take place 指事件发生,但常用来表示“举行”的意思,带有非偶然性?例如:The meeting took place last night.会议昨晚举行。

  15. in front of, in the front of

  in front of的意思是“在……前面”。如:There is a tree in front of the house.房子前面有一棵树。

  in the front of的意思是“在……前部”,指在某个空间范围内的前面。如:There is a blackboard in the front of the classroom. 教室里前部有一块黑板

  16. noise, voice, sound

  这三个词都作“声音”解,在表示“听到声音”这个意思时,三者可以通用,但它们又各有特定的含义。

  sound 作“声音”解,含义最广,指可以听到的任何声音,如:a weak sound 微弱的声

  noise作“噪音,嘈杂声,吵闹声”解,指不悦耳,不和谐的声音,它既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词。如:Another kind of pollution is noise. 另外一种污染是噪音。

  voice 作“声音”解时,多指人发出的声音,包括说话声、歌声和笑声。如:He shouted at the top of voice. 他高声呼喊。有时也用于引申意义,作“意见、发言权”解。如:I have no voice in the matter. 对于这件事,我没有发言权。

  17. arrive, get, reach

  三者均可表示“到达”,arrive后通常接介词at(一般用于较小的地方)或 in(一般用于较大的地方)?如:We arrived at the station five minutes late. 我们晚了5分钟到车站?又如:They will arrive in Paris next Monday. 他们将于下周星期一到达巴黎?

  get之后通常接介词to。如:When we got to the park, it began to rain. 我们到达公园时,就开始下雨了。

  reach是及物动词(较 get更正式),其后可直接跟地点名词做宾语(不能用介词)。如:He reached Beijing yesterday. 他昨天到达北京。

  三.情态动词

  1.考查情态动词表示“推测”的用法

  [考点快忆] 表示肯定推测的情态动词有:must“一定;准是”,may“也许;可能”,might“或许”;表示否定推测的情态动词有:can't“不可能”,couldn't“不会”,may not“也许不”,might not“或许不”;can表示推测时不用于肯定句,may表示推测时不用于疑问句。

  2.考查情态动词引起的一般疑问句的答语

  [考点快忆] 回答must时,肯定答语用must,否定答语用needn't或don't have to。回答need时,肯定答语用must,否定答语用needn't。回答may时,肯定答语用may,否定答语用mustn't 或can't。

  3.考查情态动词的意义

  [考点快忆] must “必须”;have to“不得不”; need “必须;需要”; can(could)“能;可能”;may (might) “可以;可能”; shall,will (would)“将;会;愿意;要”; should“应当”。

  “had better (not) + 动词原形”表示建议;have to / has to / had to的否定,疑问形式要借助于助动词do / does / did。

  四. There be 的句子结构

  There be是一个“存在”句型,表示“有”的意思,

  肯定句的形式为:There be + 名词(单数或复数)+地点状语或时间状语。

  be动词单复数的确定,看be后边第一个名词,当所接主语为单数或不可数名词时,be动词形式为is;当所接主语为复数名词时,be动词为are;当be动词后接两个以上主语时,be动词与最临近主语保持数上的一致。意思为“某地有某人或某物”。如:

  There is an eraser and two pens on the desk. 桌子上有一块橡皮和两支钢笔。

  There are two pens and an eraser on the desk. 桌上有两支钢笔和一块橡皮。

  (1)there be的否定句,即在be的后面加上not。

  否定形式为:There be + not + (any) + 名词+地点状语。

  There is not any cat in the room. 房间里没猫。

  There aren't any books on the desk. 桌子上没书。

  (2)there be句型的疑问句就是将be提到句首:Be there + (any) +名词+地点状语

  肯定回答:Yes, there is / are. 否定回答:No, there isn't / aren't.

  -Is there a dog in the picture?画上有一只狗吗

  -Yes, there is. 有。

  -Are there any boats in the river?河里有船吗

  -No, there aren't. 没有。

  (3)特殊疑问句:How many . . . are there (+地点状语)

  某地有多少人或物回答用There be . . .

  There's one. / There are two / three / some . . .

  有时直接就用数字来回答。One. / Two . . .

  -How many students are there in the classroom?教室里有多少学生

  -There's only one. / There are nine. 只有一个。/有九个。

  (4)如果名词是不可数名词,用:How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 地点状语

  How much water is there in the cup?杯中有多少水

  五. 中考对定语从句的考查:

  1.定语从句的功用和结构

  在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如:

  This is the present that he gave me for my birthday

  2.关系代词和关系副词的功用

  关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

  1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如:

  I don’t like people who talk much but do little.

  The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.

  2. 作宾语:She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.

  The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.

  3. 作定语

  关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:

  What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?

  The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.

  4. 作状语

  I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.

  三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

  1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

  The person who broke the window must pay for it.

  The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

  2. whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:

  Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?

  Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.

  3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:

  The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.

  I know the boy whose father is a professor.

  4. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

  A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

  Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

  5. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

  I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

  Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

  6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

  I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

  He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

  7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

  This is the house where we lived last year.

  The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

  四. 关系代词 whom,which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:

  That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room

  which we had lived in for ten years.

  五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

  1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

  (1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:

  All that he said is true.

  (2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

  He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.

  (3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

  He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

  (4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

  This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

  (5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

  He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

  2. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:

  (1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:

  The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

  (2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

  The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.、

  怎么样是不是满满的干货,毕竟这是3年来的初中英语语法总结,相信只要按照条理一点一点复习,中考一定没问题的。

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